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East Meets West in the LPGA

Case 9 00 2021 002
Case published in the International Journal of Case Studies in Management, Vol. 19, No. 3
Languages : 
  • English
  • Internationalization,
  • Global strategy,
  • Competition,
  • Cross-cultural management
Year of production : 
Registration date : 
Teaching notes included : 

In 2019, Michael Whan, commissioner of the Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA), a non-profit organization that ran the world’s most prestigious women’s golf circuit, was preparing for the tour’s 70th anniversary. Throughout its history, the LPGA had broken many social barriers, from the inclusion of African American players in the 1960s to the acceptance of transgender players in 2010. It had also reached important economic and athletic milestones. For example, the LPGA had the largest purses of any women’s sports association, a wide range of international sponsors, tournaments broadcast in over 170 countries, and the highest concentration of international professional women golf stars. These achievements were due largely to the internationalization process launched in the late 1990s that had helped transform the LPGA from a U.S.-based to an international tour. But the internationalization of the LPGA had come with challenges.

Primary domain : 
International business
Secondary domain : 
Not available
Sectors : 
  • Arts, entertainment and recreation
Source : 
HEC Montréal
Type : 
Traditional case (Decision-making case)
Type of data used in the production of the case : 
Factual data that is public and free of potentially litigious content
Event location : 
USA and world
Year of start of the event : 
Year the event ended : 
Business size : 
Medium-sized enterprise
Main themes covered


Teaching objectives
  1. Identify the key components of the business model and their impact on the internationalization process.
  2. Identity the impact of culture on the internationalization process.
Concepts and theories related to the case

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